external image image.tiff joseph_stalin.jpg Joseph Stalin was originally the general secretary of the Communist Party which he built up into one of the most powerful counties. After Lenin's death in 1924, a triumvirate of Stalin, Kamenev, and Zinoviev governed against Trotsky and Bukharin. Soon after, Stalin switched sides and joined with Bukharin . Together, they fought a new opposition of Trotsky, Kamenev , and Zinoviev . By 1928 Stalin's supremacy was complete. He exercised control over the party and the country. People were afraid to oppose him. Those who disagreed with him were condemned as traitors and imprisoned or murdered. The final stage of Stalin's rise to power was the ordered assassination of Trotsky in Mexico in 1940, where he had lived since 1936. After Trotsky's death only two members of the "Old Bolsheviks" remained, Stalin himself and his foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov.

external image 00169a35.jpeg

Bartholomeu Dias was a Portuguese explorer who had various accomplishments which changed the world completely. In 1487, King John II assigned Dias to search for land of a Christian king named Prester John. On his return voyage, he discovered the Cape of Storms, which was later renamed by King John as the Cape of Good Hope. Because Prester John did not really exist, he did not find the land but instead found a route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean leading to Asia in 1488. In 1497 Dias accompanied Vasco da Garma on a voyage, and in 1500 he joined Pedro Alvares Cabral's westward expedition. In this expedition, his ship went down in a storm and he died.

external image Ghirlandaio%3B+Giovanna+Tornabuoni.jpg

" **Giovanna Tornabuoni** " by Domenico Ghirlandaio depicts many key elements of Renaissance art. The young woman stands out, in a clear contrast of light against dark. Using **chiaroscuro** and **sfumato** creates a very realistic portrayal of Princess Giovanna. Ghilandaio's uses **perspective** extremely well, which people can clearly see that the woman is three- dimensional. Also he painted with an extreme degree of **realism** and did not alter the way she looked to the slightest bit, but rather painted exactly what he saw.
This portrait is an excellent example of humanism. Humanism replaced the Medieval viewpoint that God designs and creates everything. Domenico Ghirlandaio designed his paintings according to his thoughts and ideas, rather than basing them off of religion. Unlike most humanists though, he painted on a very elaborate scale by eye alone, without the use of sophisticated mathematics.