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Benito Mussolini was an Italian Fascist dictator from 1922- 1943. Benito, through his newspaper and propoganda, brought Fascism into Italy as well as the idea to approve of Adolf Hitler. Mussolini rose to power through many years. After failing to even come close in the election of 1919, Mussolini joined the parliament. With power in government and the creation of a more popular newspaper, Mussolini was able to spread propaganda to go to war, which many socialists did not believe in. As fascism grew and socialist ideas were weakening, riots and protests began to occur all around the country. Fearing his death and civil war in the nation, the King appointed Mussolini into power to create his own policy. Straight away, Mussolini wanted to bring Italy into war. Now having a common ally, Germany (which supported nationalism as well), he set up his country to go to war. Through the 1920s and 1930s, Mussolini created strict censorship in his nation. He took control of education, the economy, and abolished the parliament. With all the censorship, Mussolini was able to maintain control his people as well as not have many competitors. Mussolini also brought in the policy of discriminating against minorities, like the Jews.

Vasco de Gamaexternal image Vasco-da-Gama.jpg

Vasco de Gama, a Portuguese explorer, was born in Lisbon, Portugal in 1460. He was called to explore for King Manuel I who was the king of Portugal. Vasco de Gama explored a route to go to India through the Indian Ocean. On this journey, he was forced to pay heavy taxes in different Muslim ports. Also, Muslim traders did not want de Gama to continue the to the routes as they did not want interference with their profitable Route. After many disputes with the Muslims, de Gama finally reached Calicut India. In Calicut, de Gama first did well, until he was forced to pay a large tax on his goods or leave them behind. His decision was to take the goods as well as Indian hostages to get past any other taxes he would have to pay. When de Gama got back to Portugal, he was crowned a hero.







Raphael - Galatea
Galatea, by Raphael, displays a scene from a poem by Florentine Poliziano where Galatea is going across the sea on her shell as other nymphs travel around her. In the fresco their is much chiaroscuro as their is shading and light effects to bring out, and put back some of the characters. Galatea is the brightest as she is the main character of this painting, and the nympths are darker, showing they are less important. Also, Raphael uses realism to give detail to the people's body structures, and to give the sea extra detail to make it look as real as possible. In addition to using realism, Rapheal also uses sfumato to bring out color in his painting. Lastly, to add more realism to this fresco, Raphael uses perspective to show distance as well as size. Throughout this fresco, Raphael adds important details that aid the picture's theme of craziness, as well as give the figures realistic features.
One of the main influences of Raphael's art and other Renaissance artist's art is humanism. In Galatea humanism is displayed in many ways from its origin to the smallest details. First, this fresco is not based on religion or religious figures. The fresco is based on the writings of Poliziano and the figures are based on figures from Michelangelo. Also, this painting shows joy and craziness, unlike medevial art which showed death and sorrow. One other aspect of this fresco that shows humanistic traits are the babies. In medivial art, the babies would have looked like tiny men, but in this fresco, they look realistic despite their wings. Lastly, humanism is showed from the colors used in the fresco. These colors are bright and true to the setting as medevial paintings would have dull and unrealistic settings. As a result, Galatea shows evidence of humanstic based art and has magnificient details





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