Japanese Militarists

Japanese militarists are the people who thought that Japan should focus their wealth and interest on militarism. Militarism in Japan could be traced back to roots in the original Japanese samurai, yet it did not have a significant effect on Japan until the Meiji Era around times of great depression in Japan. During the Great Depression, the Japanese economy took a significant hit. Exports dropped (some by 50%), unemployment was high (3 million unemployed) , and most peasants' income dropped significantly (sometimes by 1/3), causing hatred towards the government. The Japanese people blamed the government and the rest of the world for these problems, and in response, the government suggested that the country try to expand their borders overseas to solve their problems. There were many Japanese army leaders who were militarists and strongly wanted for militarism in Japan to succeed. These people allowed for the army to take control of Japan. With this control, many militarists wanted to kill all opponents to militarism in Japan, so secret police forces were formed for this purpose. Communists were persecuted, and the militarists wanted full control over their people/wanted censorship.
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Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian born in Florence, Italy, on March 9th, 1454. His uncle taught him to be a businessman who dealt with trading goods. Because of his job, he frequently was around ships of many kinds. For that reason, he became very knowledgeable about modern ships. In 1491, he moved to Seville, Spain, to work in one of the thriving trading businesses located there. It is thought that he met Christopher Columbus there after he returned from his first voyage to the Americas and he helped him prepare for his next trip. Vespucci was also a very skilled navigator, an in later years, he made his own journeys to the Americas. He wanted to find a faster way to sail to Asia because it would help his business. He made at least two or more voyages to South America between 1497 and 1504 for both Spain and Portugal. He was one of the first people to realize that he had not actually sailed to Asia, but rather a new world. An unknown author wrote a pamphlet called "The Four Voyages of Amerigo," and they suggested that the lands he discovered be named in his honor. So, the Americas were named in his honor. He became the Master Navigator of Seville, but he died in 1512 at the age of 57.

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Palazzo Vecchio

The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence, Italy. The building is constructed in the Romanesque style of architecture, and it crenelated. Crenelation, or more commonly referred to as a battlement, is a building that has walls with portions that are cut out to discharge arrows or other projectiles. The entrance to the fortress-palace's entrance is exquisite; with a copy of Michelangelo's David and the original of Baccio Bandenneli'sHercules and Cactus. There are three courtyards in the Palazzo Vecchio, but the second is the most ornate. It has rounded arches and barrel vaults, and is surrounded by ornate fountains and verdure. Of the many rooms in the building, the Salone dei Cinquencento, or the hall of the 1500's, is the most elaborate room. It was decorated with works done by many artists, including Leonard Di Vinci and Michelangelo. Unfortunately, some of the art was lost when the room was enlarged.

The rooms of the Palazzo Vecchio withhold many items that relate to humanism. The first is the Stanza della Guardaroba, or the hall of geographic maps. The room was used by the Medici grand dukes to store their belongings. The room contained 53 maps of scientific interest painted by a monk named Ignazio Danti. The maps represented the general amount of knowledge for the world in during the time of their painting. The room's center had a large globe, but it was destroyed because of too many restorations. This room displays how the humanists wanted to know more of their planet. The Room of Penelope contains four paintings: Penelope at the loom, Episodes from the Odyssey, Madonna and Child, and Madonna and Child with St. John. The paintings show a contrast in humanist beliefs. On one hand, the paintings Penelope at the loom and Episodes from the Odyssey represent the humanist's interest in mythology. The other two paintings, Madonna and Child and Madonna and Child with St. John depict moments in Christianity, which was not of humanist concern. The last room that relates to humanism in the Plazzo Vecchio is the Studiolo, or studio. This room was only accessible by a hidden staircase. It was very small, but the room contained two levels of oil paintings on panels or slate that served as small doors. Inside them were hundreds of scientific instruments, books, and specimens. It was created for Francesco I de' Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany to express his humanist ideas, such as science and mythology.
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